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Introducing to Modern SP networks (VPN)

Traditional Router-Based networks traditional router-based networks connect customer sites through routers connected via dedicated POINT-TO-POINT links (leased lines) Leased lines advantages complete secure, high bandwidth, superior quality, reliable Leased lines disadvantages Expensive Permanent physical connection not scalable – it is very difficult for SP to provide separate physical connection for every customer sites. VPN networks  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem Introducing to Modern SP networks (VPN)

Understanding VPN models

VPN services can be offered as two major models: Overlay model service provider provides virtual point-to-point links between customer sites Frame relay, ATM, X.25, IPSEC, GRE In overlay model SP dont know anything about customer routes! He doesnt participates in customer routing. He doesnt receive any customer routers. He decide how to proceed the packet  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem Understanding VPN models

CEF

Layer 3 Switch Processing process switching – requires the CPU to be personally involved with every forwarding decission fast switching – still uses a CPU but after a packet has been forwarded, infromation about how to reach the destination is stored in a fast-switching cache CEF – optimizing the router to make it able to  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem CEF

MPLS introduction

Traditional IP routing In traditional IP routing world routing protocols are used to distribute L3 routing information. A forwarding decission is made on packet header and local routing table. Routing lookups are indepedently performed at every hop. Basic MPLS features MPLS is forwarding mechanism in which packets are forwareded based on labels. MPLS can run  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem MPLS introduction

MPLS labels

MPLS label got 4 bytes and is inserted between L2 and L3. It encapsulates the L2 frame. the first 20 bits is label itself, which is assigned to each packet. next 3 bites is EXP filed which contain QoS or IPPresence values. next one bit is bottom of stack indicator. This indicates if the label  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem MPLS labels

Configuring MPLS LDP inside SP Core

Pre-requirements CEF must be enabled – without CEF the MPLS just doesnt work IGP routing – for router to be able to map label to network the route must exist in routing table for that network. Router build from routing table the FIB in CEF and once you configure label binding it will configure also  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem Configuring MPLS LDP inside SP Core

MPLS Packet flow and label distribution protocol

First the router build routing table for IGP routing in MPLS domain and put it to FIB in CEF Every LSR assign a local label for each route learned Every LSR assign implicit null label for its local connected interface networks. Every LSR will share its label with its direct neighbors using LDP Every LSR  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem MPLS Packet flow and label distribution protocol

Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)

Penultimate Hop Popping optimizes MPLS performance by removing the requirement for double lookup to be performed on PE router. The LIB table will show the value of imp-null. When PHP is turned on the penultimate router remove the label (POP) from the packet if he sees that the destination packet is directly connected for the  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)

MPLS LDP troubleshooting

When your MPLS neighbors are not forming the neighborship, you may have these possible issues: MPLS IP not enabled on interface protocol missmatch (TDP, LDP globaly or at interface level) higher loopback ID is taken as a router ID which is not advertised via IGP missmatch authentication if configured filtering udp port 646 for LDP  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem MPLS LDP troubleshooting

MPLS L3 VPN

Here are basic steps how to configure MPLS L3 VPN: Configure IGP inside SP Core Configure MPLS LDP inside SP Core Create VRF, RD and RT for customer Configure VPNv4 peering between PE routers Configure routing between PE and CE – you provide whatever customer requires here (OSPF, static, BGP, ISIS, RIP,…) Configure redistribution on  Full Article…

Komentáře nejsou povolené u textu s názvem MPLS L3 VPN
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